Ser Conjugation Chart & Full Tense Guide


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The Spanish verb “ser” is one of the two Spanish verbs ‘to be.’ It is one of the most irregular verbs in the language and is used to describe essential characteristics, identities, and time.

Here is the full list of its conjugations in the indicative, subjunctive, and imperative moods, including simple and compound tenses.

Present Tense 

PronounsPronombres
Iyosoy
youeres
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedes
wenosotros,nosotrassomos
you pl.vosotros, vosotrassois
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedesson

When We Use The Present Tense in Spanish

In Spanish, the present tense serves multiple purposes. It is used to describe actions happening now, habitual or repeated actions, general truths, and future plans or intentions.

Additionally, it can express actions that are happening in the near future, describe past events in a vivid way (historical present), and indicate conditions or states that are currently true.

Examples of Ser in the Present Tense

  1. Yo soy estudiante. (I am a student.)
  2. Tú eres mi mejor amigo. (You are my best friend.)
  3. Él es doctor. (He is a doctor.)
  4. Ella es muy inteligente. (She is very intelligent.)
  5. Nosotros somos compañeros de clase. (We are classmates.)
  6. Vosotros sois los ganadores. (You all are the winners.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos son hermanos. (They are brothers.)
  8. Ustedes son muy amables. (You are very kind.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Eso es una buena idea. (That is a good idea.)
  10. Madrid es la capital de España. (Madrid is the capital of Spain.)

Preterite Tense 

PronounsPronombres
Iyofui
youfuiste
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedfue
wenosotros,nosotrasfuimos
you pl.vosotros, vosotrasfuisteis
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedesfueron

When We Use The Preterite Tense in Spanish

The preterite tense in Spanish is used to describe actions that were completed in the past. It emphasises the completion of an action or event at a specific point in time.

The preterite is often used for actions that happened once or momentarily, events that occurred in a sequence, or to state the beginning or end of an action.

It contrasts with the imperfect tense, which describes habitual past actions or actions without a defined endpoint. Understanding when to use the preterite helps in narrating past events clearly, marking the timeline of occurrences precisely.

Examples of Ser the Preterite Tense

  1. Yo fui el primero en llegar. (I was the first to arrive.)
  2. Tú fuiste mi amigo cuando más te necesité. (You were my friend when I needed you the most.)
  3. Él fue un gran líder para nuestro equipo. (He was a great leader for our team.)
  4. Ella fue la mejor estudiante de la clase. (She was the best student in the class.)
  5. Nosotros fuimos campeones el año pasado. (We were champions last year.)
  6. Vosotros fuisteis invitados a la fiesta, ¿verdad? (You all were invited to the party, right?) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos fueron los primeros en terminar el proyecto. (They were the first to finish the project.)
  8. Ustedes fueron seleccionados para la beca. (You were selected for the scholarship.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Ese día fue muy especial para todos nosotros. (That day was very special for all of us.)
  10. La fiesta fue en mi casa el sábado pasado. (The party was at my house last Saturday.)

Imperfect Tense

PronounsPronombres
Iyoera
youeras
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedera
wenosotros,nosotraséramos
you pl.vosotros, vosotraserais
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedeseran

When We Use The Imperfect Tense in Spanish

The imperfect tense in Spanish is used to describe past actions without focusing on their beginning or end, emphasizing their ongoing nature or habitual occurrence.

It’s often applied to actions that were repeated over time, background settings, or conditions existing in the past. The imperfect tense contrasts with the preterite by conveying actions that were continuous or habitual in the past, rather than completed events.

It’s also used to describe people, situations, and time in the past, as well as to express politeness.

Examples of Ser in the Imperfect Tense

  1. Yo era muy feliz en mi infancia. (I was very happy in my childhood.)
  2. Tú eras el mejor jugador del equipo. (You were the best player on the team.)
  3. Él era profesor antes de jubilarse. (He was a teacher before retiring.)
  4. Ella era conocida por su generosidad. (She was known for her generosity.)
  5. Nosotros éramos vecinos cuando éramos niños. (We were neighbors when we were children.)
  6. Vosotros erais muy unidos en la universidad. (You all were very close in college.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos eran muy felices juntos. (They were very happy together.)
  8. Ustedes eran los más jóvenes del grupo. (You were the youngest in the group.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Era una noche oscura y tormentosa. (It was a dark and stormy night.)
  10. Las clases eran muy interesantes el semestre pasado. (The classes were very interesting last semester.)

Future Tense 

PronounsPronombres
Iyoseré
youserás
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedserá
wenosotros,nosotrasseremos
you pl.vosotros, vosotrasseréis
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedesserán

When We Use The Future Tense in Spanish

Using “ser” in the future tense in Spanish is for expressing actions that will happen in the future or for making predictions.

Examples of Ser in the Future Tense

  1. Yo seré médico en unos años. (I will be a doctor in a few years.)
  2. Tú serás un gran artista, estoy seguro. (You will be a great artist, I’m sure.)
  3. Él será el próximo presidente de la compañía. (He will be the next president of the company.)
  4. Ella será la encargada del proyecto. (She will be in charge of the project.)
  5. Nosotros seremos los anfitriones de la reunión. (We will be the hosts of the meeting.)
  6. Vosotros seréis invitados especiales en la ceremonia. (You all will be special guests at the ceremony.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos serán padres muy pronto. (They will be parents very soon.)
  8. Ustedes serán responsables de organizar el evento. (You will be responsible for organizing the event.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Será una sorpresa para todos. (It will be a surprise for everyone.)
  10. El año que viene será mejor. (Next year will be better.)

Conditional Tense 

PronounsPronombres
Iyosería
youserías
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedsería
wenosotros,nosotrasseríamos
you pl.vosotros, vosotrasseríais
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedesserían

When We Use The Conditional Tense in Spanish

The conditional tense in Spanish is used to express what would happen under certain conditions or to describe hypothetical situations. It’s also used for polite requests or to express a future action seen from a past perspective.

Examples of Ser in the Conditional Tense

  1. Yo sería feliz si ganara la lotería. (I would be happy if I won the lottery.)
  2. Tú serías un buen líder si decidieras postularte. (You would be a good leader if you decided to run.)
  3. Él sería más saludable si comiera mejor. (He would be healthier if he ate better.)
  4. Ella sería famosa si publicara su libro. (She would be famous if she published her book.)
  5. Nosotros seríamos ricos si invirtiéramos en esa empresa. (We would be rich if we invested in that company.)
  6. Vosotros seríais invitados si vinierais a la ciudad. (You all would be invited if you came to the city.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos serían felices juntos si se dieran una oportunidad. (They would be happy together if they gave themselves a chance.)
  8. Ustedes serían bienvenidos siempre en nuestra casa. (You would always be welcome at our house.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Sería una buena idea considerar esa propuesta. (It would be a good idea to consider that proposal.)
  10. El concierto sería increíble si no se cancelara. (The concert would be incredible if it weren’t canceled.)

Preterite Perfect Tense 

PronounsPronombresAuxiliary verb ‘haber’
Iyohesido
youhassido
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedhasido
wenosotros,nosotrashemossido
you pl.vosotros, vosotrashabéissido
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedeshansido

When We Use The Preterite Perfect Tense in Spanish

The preterite perfect tense in Spanish is a literary tense that is rarely, almost never used in spoken language today. However, it is useful to know or recognise  if you read archaic literature or texts. 

It describes an action that was completed immediately before another past action, both of which are usually expressed in a narrative or written context.

This tense is formed with the preterite of “haber” followed by the past participle of the verb.

Examples of Ser in the Preterite Perfect Tense

  1. Yo hube sido el primero en entregar el examen. (I had been the first to turn in the exam.)
  2. Tú hubiste sido mi mejor amigo durante aquellos años. (You had been my best friend during those years.)
  3. Él hubo sido director de la compañía antes de su jubilación. (He had been the director of the company before his retirement.)
  4. Ella hubo sido la mejor en su campo antes de cambiar de carrera. (She had been the best in her field before changing careers.)
  5. Nosotros hubimos sido campeones antes de aquel partido. (We had been champions before that game.)
  6. Vosotros hubisteis sido los primeros en llegar a la cima. (You all had been the first to reach the summit.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos hubieron sido considerados los mejores antes de la llegada de los nuevos talentos. (They had been considered the best before the arrival of new talents.)
  8. Ustedes hubieron sido advertidos sobre los riesgos antes del incidente. (You had been warned about the risks before the incident.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Hubo sido una época de grandes descubrimientos científicos. (It had been a time of great scientific discoveries.)
  10. Hubieron sido años difíciles antes de la recuperación económica. (There had been difficult years before the economic recovery.)

Pluperfect Tense 

PronounsPronombresAuxiliary verb ‘haber’
Iyohabíasido
youhabíassido
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedhabíasido
wenosotros,nosotrashabíamossido
you pl.vosotros, vosotrashabíaissido
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedeshabíansido

When We Use The Pluperfect Tense in Spanish

The pluperfect tense in Spanish, also known as the past perfect, is used to talk about actions or conditions that had taken place before another action or condition in the past.

It is formed using the imperfect tense of “haber” followed by the past participle of the verb.

Examples of Ser in the Pluperfect Tense

  1. Yo había sido el capitán del equipo antes de ese torneo. (I had been the captain of the team before that tournament.)
  2. Tú habías sido muy buen estudiante en la secundaria. (You had been a very good student in high school.)
  3. Él había sido un actor famoso antes de dedicarse a la dirección. (He had been a famous actor before dedicating himself to directing.)
  4. Ella había sido la mejor amiga de mi hermana. (She had been my sister’s best friend.)
  5. Nosotros habíamos sido vecinos durante años antes de mudarnos. (We had been neighbors for years before moving.)
  6. Vosotros habíais sido los organizadores de la fiesta anual. (You all had been the organizers of the annual party.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos habían sido felices hasta que ocurrió el accidente. (They had been happy until the accident happened.)
  8. Ustedes habían sido informados sobre los cambios en el proyecto. (You had been informed about the changes in the project.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Antes de la guerra, este lugar había sido un paraíso. (Before the war, this place had been a paradise.)
  10. Habían sido amigos por décadas antes de separarse. (They had been friends for decades before parting ways.)

Future Perfect Tense

PronounsPronombresAuxiliary verb ‘haber’
Iyohabrésido
youhabrássido
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedhabrásido
wenosotros,nosotrashabremossido
you pl.vosotros, vosotrashabréissido
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedeshabránsido

When We Use The Future Perfect Tense in Spanish

The future perfect tense in Spanish is used to describe actions that will have been completed by a certain future point in time.

It is formed with the future tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” followed by the past participle of the verb.

Examples of Ser in the Future Perfect Tense

  1. Yo habré sido profesor por veinte años al finalizar este curso. (I will have been a teacher for twenty years by the end of this course.)
  2. Tú habrás sido parte de esta empresa por una década cuando te jubiles. (You will have been part of this company for a decade when you retire.)
  3. Él habrá sido presidente por dos términos al dejar el cargo. (He will have been president for two terms when he leaves office.)
  4. Ella habrá sido mi amiga por treinta años el próximo mes. (She will have been my friend for thirty years next month.)
  5. Nosotros habremos sido casados por cincuenta años el año que viene. (We will have been married for fifty years next year.)
  6. Vosotros habréis sido vecinos nuestros por quince años en septiembre. (You all will have been our neighbors for fifteen years in September.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos habrán sido los campeones reinantes por tres años consecutivos si ganan hoy. (They will have been the reigning champions for three consecutive years if they win today.)
  8. Ustedes habrán sido residentes de esta ciudad por más de veinte años al final de este mes. (You will have been residents of this city for more than twenty years by the end of this month.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Para el año 2050, habrá sido cien años desde la fundación de la empresa. (By the year 2050, it will have been a hundred years since the company was founded.)
  10. Para cuando vuelva, habréis sido promovidos, según los planes actuales. (By the time I return, you will have been promoted, according to current plans.)

Conditional Perfect Tense

PronounsPronombresAuxiliary verb ‘haber’
Iyohabríasido
youhabríassido
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedhabríasido
wenosotros,nosotrashabríamossido
you pl.vosotros, vosotrashabríaissido
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedeshabríansido

When We Use The Conditional Perfect Tense in Spanish

The conditional perfect tense in Spanish is used to express actions that would have occurred in the past under certain conditions, often reflecting on hypothetical outcomes or speculating about events that didn’t happen.

It is formed with the conditional tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” followed by the past participle of the verb.

Examples of Ser in the Conditional Perfect Tense

  1. Yo habría sido más feliz si hubiera viajado más. (I would have been happier if I had traveled more.)
  2. Tú habrías sido un gran actor si te hubieras dedicado a ello. (You would have been a great actor if you had dedicated yourself to it.)
  3. Él habría sido un buen médico, pero eligió otra carrera. (He would have been a good doctor, but he chose another career.)
  4. Ella habría sido la vencedora si hubiera competido. (She would have been the winner if she had competed.)
  5. Nosotros habríamos sido ricos si hubiéramos invertido en aquel entonces. (We would have been rich if we had invested back then.)
  6. Vosotros habríais sido reconocidos mundialmente si hubierais lanzado ese producto. (You all would have been recognized worldwide if you had launched that product.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Ellos habrían sido felices juntos si las circunstancias hubieran sido diferentes. (They would have been happy together if the circumstances had been different.)
  8. Ustedes habrían sido seleccionados para el equipo si hubieran asistido a las pruebas. (You would have been selected for the team if you had attended the tryouts.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Ese proyecto habría sido un éxito si hubiéramos tenido más recursos. (That project would have been a success if we had had more resources.)
  10. La fiesta habría sido más divertida si todos hubieran podido venir. (The party would have been more fun if everyone could have come.)

Present Subjunctive

PronounsPronombres
Iyosea
youseas
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedsea
wenosotros,nosotrasseamos
you pl.vosotros, vosotrasseáis
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedessean

When We Use The Present Subjunctive in Spanish

The present subjunctive in Spanish is used to express wishes, doubts, the unknown, the abstract, and emotions.

It’s a mood that reflects how the speaker feels about the action rather than indicating when the action occurs.

Examples of Ser in the Present Subjunctive Tense

  1. Es importante que yo sea puntual. (It’s important that I be punctual.)
  2. Quiero que tú seas mi amigo. (I want you to be my friend.)
  3. Es necesario que él sea honesto. (It’s necessary that he be honest.)
  4. Espero que ella sea feliz. (I hope that she is happy.)
  5. Deseamos que nosotros seamos exitosos. (We wish that we are successful.)
  6. Prefiero que vosotros seáis parte del equipo. (I prefer that you all be part of the team.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Es bueno que ellos sean respetuosos. (It’s good that they be respectful.)
  8. Quiero que ustedes sean parte de este proyecto. (I want you to be part of this project.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Es posible que mañana sea un día soleado. (It’s possible that tomorrow is a sunny day.)
  10. Espero que esto sea lo correcto. (I hope this is the right thing.)

Imperfect Subjunctive

PronounsPronombres
Iyofuera
youfueras
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedfuera
wenosotros,nosotrasfuéramos,fuésemos
you pl.vosotros, vosotrasfuerais,fueseis
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedesfueran

When We Use The Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish

The imperfect subjunctive in Spanish is used for expressing wishes, recommendations, or hypothetical situations in the past.

It often follows certain expressions and conjunctions, and is used in if-clauses that express conditions that are contrary to fact or unlikely to happen.

Examples of Ser in the Imperfect Subjunctive Tense

  1. Quería que yo fuera más paciente. (I wanted me to be more patient.)
  2. Te sugerí que tú fueras el líder del grupo. (I suggested you be the group leader.)
  3. Era importante que él fuera puntual. (It was important that he be punctual.)
  4. Deseaba que ella fuera mi amiga. (I wished she were my friend.)
  5. Pedíamos que nosotros fuéramos tratados con justicia. (We asked that we be treated fairly.)
  6. Preferías que vosotros fuerais incluidos en la lista. (You preferred that you all be included on the list.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Querían que ellos fueran felices. (They wanted them to be happy.)
  8. Era necesario que ustedes fueran más comprensivos. (It was necessary that you be more understanding.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Si yo fuera rico, viajaría por el mundo. (If I were rich, I would travel the world.)
  10. Si ella fuera la presidenta, cambiaría la ley. (If she were the president, she would change the law.)

Pluperfect Subjunctive 

PronounsPronombresAuxiliary verb ‘haber’
Iyohubiera,hubiesesido
youhubieras,hubiesessido
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,ustedhubiera,hubiesesido
wenosotros,nosotrashubiéramos,hubiésemossido
you pl.vosotros, vosotrashubierais,hubieseissido
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedeshubieran,hubiesensido

When We Use The Pluperfect Subjunctive in Spanish

The pluperfect subjunctive in Spanish is used to express actions that would have occurred before another past action or event.

It’s often used in hypothetical or counterfactual situations.

Examples of Ser in the Pluperfect Subjunctive Tense

  1. Si hubiera sido más organizado, habría tenido éxito. (If I had been more organized, I would have been successful.)
  2. Ojalá hubieras sido más puntual en esa ocasión. (I wish you had been more punctual on that occasion.)
  3. Si él hubiera sido más valiente, habría enfrentado sus miedos. (If he had been braver, he would have confronted his fears.)
  4. Si ella hubiera sido honesta desde el principio, todo sería diferente. (If she had been honest from the beginning, everything would be different.)
  5. Nosotros habríamos sido más felices si hubiéramos tomado otra decisión. (We would have been happier if we had made a different decision.)
  6. Si vosotros hubierais sido más cuidadosos, no habría ocurrido el accidente. (If you all had been more careful, the accident wouldn’t have happened.) [Note: “Vosotros/as” is used in Spain for the informal plural “you.”]
  7. Si ellos hubieran sido más amigables, nos habríamos llevado mejor. (If they had been friendlier, we would have gotten along better.)
  8. Si ustedes hubieran sido más comunicativos, habríamos resuelto el problema antes. (If you had been more communicative, we would have resolved the issue earlier.) [Note: “Ustedes” is used for the formal or plural “you” in Latin America and for the plural “you” in Spain.]
  9. Si mi hijo hubiera sido un genio, habría ganado la competencia. (If my son had been a genius, he would have won the competition.)
  10. Si el clima hubiera sido mejor, habríamos ido a la playa. (If the weather had been better, we would have gone to the beach.)

Affirmative Imperative 

PronounsPronombres
you¡sé!
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,usted¡sea!
wenosotros,nosotras¡seamos!
you pl.vosotros, vosotras¡sed!
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedes¡sean!

When We Use The Affirmative Imperative

The affirmative imperative in Spanish is used to give positive commands or instructions, telling someone to do something. It’s used for direct requests, orders, or encouragement.

Examples of Ser in the Affirmative Imperative

  1. amable con todos. (Be kind to everyone.)
  2. puntual en la cita. (Be punctual for the appointment.)
  3. sincero contigo mismo. (Be honest with yourself.)

Negative Imperative

PronounsPronombres
you¡no seas!
he,she,it, you(formal)él,ella,usted¡no sea!
wenosotros,nosotras¡no seamos!
you pl.vosotros, vosotras¡no seáis!
they, you pl. (formal)ellos,ellas,ustedes¡no sean!

When We Use The Negative Imperative

The negative imperative in Spanish is used to give commands or instructions in a negative form, telling someone not to do something. It’s used for prohibitions, warnings, or discouragement.

Examples of Ser in the Negative Imperative

  1. No seas impaciente. (Don’t be impatient.)
  2. No seas egoísta. (Don’t be selfish.)
  3. No seas grosero con los demás. (Don’t be rude to others.)

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My name is James. I am a Brit with a love for the Spanish language. I have lived in Spain, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and I have been teaching Spanish for over a decade. This site will show you how to master the elements of Spanish grammar that often dishearten learners. I hope you enjoy the site and find it useful.

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